For most of Christian history new Jewish believers were expected to assimilate into Western cultural Christianity and forfeit their Jewish identity.  Modern Jewish believers felt compelled to challenge this example of cultural imperialism in light of the New Testament revelation.  They discovered that their fidelity to their Jewish identity was consistent with their biblical calling.  Like in Book of Acts apostolic Christianity, modern believers found Jewish identity was entirely compatible with the full slate of New Covenant revelation.  This topic will be addressed in association with Romans 9-11