In the 18th century the sterility of scholastic rabbinism was challenged by the widely adopted new Hasidic movement with its emphases upon exhilaration of mind and soul.  Approximately 50% of the Jewish people adopted Hasidism.  About the same number fell victim to false messiahs.  In reaction Modern Judaism(s) largely rejected Messianic hopes or aspirations in favor of science, reason and political ideologies.  Scientific contributions to make an idealized world a reality captured the hopes and commitments of the Jewish masses.